Yes and no. I have a Rock Pi 4B, which was an upgrade over a Raspberry Pi 4.
You *cannot* just insert an Astroberry SD card into a Rock Pi and boot it.
Instead, what you do is install a standard OS distribution,either Debian Buster (downloaded from the Radxa website) or Armbian Buster (which is downloaded from the Armbian website). Both are based on Debian, and will work.
Then you add the Astroberry repository to your APT sources.list, and install the packages. You won't get a full out of the box Astroberry experience, you will need to do some configuring, but it should work.
There are instructions on the Astroberry website. Go to documentation, then to the advanced install section. It says Buster isn't supported, but there are Buster packages available for Astroberry. I think the documentation is out of date in that regard.
I personally never used Astroberry because I'm a software developer and I just built everything from source code. I don't necessary recommend that approach to non-developers though.
Oh, and if you really want to speed up the Rock Pi, use eMMC and not an SD card. It's much faster!